• The first line of your citation should be left-aligned, with each subsequent line indented 5 points. This is called a hanging indent. Cite your source as completely as possible, skipping sections where citation information is not available. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.

    Source Citation & Evaluation
    Order Citation Element Formatting Evaluation Criteria Where Can I Find This Online?
    1. Author. Lastname, Firstname. Authority Usually near title
    2. Title of source. Whole Source. -or- "Part of a Whole."


    Usually top of webpage/article

    3. Title of container, Title of Container/Website, Authority Usually name of website
    4. Other contributors, [example: Edited by Firstname Lastname,] Authority Usually bottom of webpage/article
    5. Version, [example: vol. 2,] Currency Usually bottom of webpage/article
    6. Number, [example: no. 24,] Currency  
    7. Publisher, Publisher, Bias Webpage footer, by copyright date
    8. Publication date, Day Mon. Year, Currency Usually by title/author
    9. Location, p. -or- pp. for paginated. Omit "http://" for websites Authority Address bar
    10. Date of Access. [example: Accessed 6 Oct. 2017]    

    Example of a Formatted Citation (your final citation will have a hanging indent)
    Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009. 


Noodle Tools

Citing with the Purdue Online Writing Lab

  • The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University maintains useful guides for current citation standards.  Use the guides linked below for help citing your sources properly.


    The Modern Language Association (MLA) style of citation is used primarily in the humanities.

    Click Here for the Purdue MLA Citation Guide


    The American Psychological Association (APA) style of citation is primarily used in the social sciences.

    Click Here for the Purdue APA Citation Guide


    The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) utilizes footnotes and endnotes in citations.

    Click Here to access the Chicago Manual of Style online


    Citing Legal Documents